ivan in russian

En 1503, un traité de paix est signé. Le nonce, le cardinal Antoine Bonumbre, lui sert d'escorte pendant le voyage et accompagne d'ailleurs la princesse, mais le métropolite Philippe force le grand-prince Ivan III à lui refuser l'entrée dans Moscou. Cherniavsky, Michael.

Upon returning, Ivan created the oprichnina, a sub-territory that owed allegiance solely to Ivan, not to the government as a whole.

Basil's Cathedral in Moscow is one of the iconic images of Russia to this day. It does not convey the more modern connotations of English terrible such as "defective" or "evil". [4] Ivan took the field against Novgorod in 1470, and after his generals had twice defeated the forces of the republic—at the Battle of Shelon River and on the Northern Dvina, both in the summer of 1471—the Novgorodians were forced to sue for peace, agreeing to abandon their overtures to Lithuania and ceding a considerable portion of their northern territories, and paying a war indemnity of 15,500 rouble. In addition to Zasechnaya cherta, innovative fortifications were set beyond the Oka River, which defined the border. Cette sacralisation de la famille régnante des princes de Moscou trouve encore un autre terrain d'expression littéraire dans l'hagiographie.

Muscovy recognised Polish–Lithuanian control of Livonia only in 1582.

Khan Devlet I Giray of Crimea repeatedly raided the Moscow region.

[58] The letters are often the only existing source on Ivan's personality and provide crucial information on his reign, but Harvard professor Edward L. Keenan has argued that the letters are 17th-century forgeries. In addition, it was no longer artificially divided into two parts (the "oprichnina" and "zemsky"), unlike during the 1571 defeat.

Ivan the Terrible meditating at the deathbed of his son. In 1491 Andrei the Elder was arrested by Ivan for refusing to aid the Crimean Tatars against the Golden Horde. Cette même année, Ivan attaque la Lituanie, prenant prétexte les persécutions de prêtres orthodoxes. His body was rather asymmetrical, had a large amount of osteophytes uncharacteristic of his age and contained excessive concentration of mercury. In 1572, however, they overextended themselves, and the Russian army was able to decisively end the hopes of Crimea—and their patrons, the Ottomans—to expand and conquer into Russian territory.

[citation needed] Many modern researchers estimate the number of victims to range from 2,000–3,000 since after the famine and epidemics of the 1560s, the population of Novgorod most likely did not exceed 10,000–20,000.

The attempts of the Moscow government to gain a foothold on the Middle Volga kept provoking uprisings of local peoples, which was suppressed only with great difficulty. Contrairement à ses prédécesseurs, Ivan le Grand adopte une politique agressive vis-à-vis ses voisins immédiats, la Horde d'or et la Lituanie. When the throne was returned to Ivan in 1576, he returned some of the confiscated land and kept the rest.

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